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An Evaluation of Internet Banking in Turkey


Melek Acar Boyacioglu, PhD


By : Ata Fadaee
========================
Asst. Prof. /Selcuk University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative
 Sciences,
Department of Business Administration
Postal Address:Selcuk University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative
Sciences,
Department of Business Administration, Campus 42031, Konya,
Turkey
Email: melekacar@yahoo.com
Dr. Acar Boyacioglu is an Assistant Professor of Finance, Department of
Accounting and
Finance, Selcuk University, Turkey. She received a PhD in
 Finance from Selcuk University. Her
research interests include financial
modeling, forecasting and applications of artificial intelligence
techniques
in finance. She has published articles in the Expert Systems with Applications.

Tevfik Nadi Hotamis, MBA
Postal Address: Denizbank, Denizbank, Konya, Turkey
Email: tevfik.hotamis@denizbank.com
Hotamis graduated from Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences,
Selcuk University
with bachelor’s degree in 1999. He has received his master’s
degree from the Institute of Social
Sciences as Master of Science in Business
 Management at Selcuk University in 2008. He has
been working as a investment
 manager at a private bank since 1999.

Huseyin Cetin, M.Sc.
Selcuk University, Social Sciences Vocational School of Higher Education
Postal Address: Selcuk University, Social Sciences Vocational School of Higher
 Education,
Campus 42031, Konya,Turkey
Email: hcetin42@gmail.com
Cetin graduated from Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences,
Selcuk University with
bachelor’s degree in 1999. He has received his master’s
 degree from the Institute of Social
Sciences as Master of Science in Business Management at Selcuk University. His PhD study is
continuing as a Business Management student at the stage of thesis dissertation.
Since
September 2005 he has been lecturing Finance, Accounting, Auditing and
 Cost Analysis at
Selcuk University.
======================

Abstract

The present study is an attempt to examine the performance of Turkish banks
in  terms of providing banking products and services through their web sites. A representative sample of 22 banks operating in Turkey was included in this study.
The websites of these banks have been analyzed in terms of the financial
transaction,non financial transaction, speed, security, uninterrupted
serviceability and visual design. Research is conducted in 2009 and shows
that Turkish banks perform  extremely well in IB. This study also investigates
the level of adoption of IB in Turkey. A survey is conducted to obtain customers’ perspectives regarding IB. According to the results obtained from the survey;
all of the participants who did not use IB found IB difficult.

They did not know how to use IB or found IB service insecure and unclear.
Therefore, they prefer face-to-face banking. Moreover, it was observed that the
levels of education and income were the factors that most affected IB use.
It was concluded that the clients who found IB easy and thought that it served
 their purpose had been using IB for a longer time. On the other hand, usefulness,
web security and personal views did not have a significant influence on the
durationof IB use.


Keywords: Internet Banking, Websites Evaluation, Customer Adoption, Turkey.

INTRODUCTION
The term Internet Banking (IB) refers to the use of the internet as a remote delivery channel for
banking services (Achour and Bensedrine, 2005). IB involves consumers using the internet to
access their bank and account, to undertake banking transactions. IB makes it possible for
banks to offer consumers a variety of services 24 hours a day (Mols, 2000: 9).
IB offers various operations. Banking institutions are using their websites not only to provide
classical operations such as fund transfer or account details, but also to provide stock trading in
world markets, bill payments, check book request, credit card request and investment advice
(Guru et al., 2003). Banks also use the websites as an information delivery tool, a channel for
conducting transactions and a tool to improve customer relationship (Diniz, 1998).
IB has become increasingly prevalent, employed by many financial institutions to reduce cots
associated with having personnel serve customers physically, shorten processing periods,
increase speed, improve the flexibility of business transactions and provide better service overall
(Ainin et al., 2005).
Firstly, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the progresses of Turkish banks on the web and
the type of services offered. We attempted to evaluate IB services, using a quality evaluation
model of IB websites. This evaluation model considers several criteria. They include financial
transaction, non financial transaction, speed, security uninterrupted serviceability and visual
design. The study is based on the survey of websites of the banks. Personnel correspondence
was also conducted with the experts of the banks. It begins by analyzing the bank websites.
Then it examines the IB products and services. To the best knowledge of the authors, there are
no published studies, researching websites of commercial banks in Turkey. The present study is
intended to fill this important gap. In the second part of the study, a survey was conducted to
obtain customers’ perspectives regarding IB.
JIBC August 2010, Vol. 15, No.2 - 3 -
The rest of the paper has been organized as follows. The next section gives a review of relevant
literature. Section 3 gives an evaluation of the IB in Turkey. Section 4 presents the research
methodology. Section 5 reports the findings of the study. Finally, Section 6 contains the
concluding remarks.
LITERATURE REVIEW IN IB
The literature dealing with IB is very large. In this section, we focus the review of previous
studies on the evaluation of IB websites and the surveys conducted on this subject.
Diniz (1998) presents a survey on websites of banks in order to learn about web banking models
and their adoption in United States. He finds out American banks using the web to reach
opportunities in three different categories: to market information, to deliver banking products and
services and to improve customer relationship. He reports that most of the American banks offer
basic and intermediate services at the transactional and informational levels. Sathye (1999)
surveys the state of IB in Australia. He ascertains the major factors affecting the adoption of IB
by Australian consumers. This study states that security concerns and lack of awareness stand
out as the reasons for non-adoption of innovation of IB by Australian customers. It finds that only
two of the 52 banks started IB services at that time. There is still a lot of room for IB to expand in
Australia.
Mols (2000) focuses on the perceptions and expectations regarding the internet among key
managers in the Danish retail banks. Jasimuddin (2001) evaluates the websites of Saudi banks
and reports that Saudi banks use the Internet as an information delivery tool to improve
relationship with customers. Polatoglu and Ekin (2001) have examined the level of adoption of
the IB in Turkey, and discussed the factors affecting its diffusion. This study reveals that IB
services not only reduce the operational costs of the banks, but also increase the level of
customer satisfaction. They clarifies that IB services have added benefits in terms of customer
attraction, and it may lead to higher competition by bringing new products and alternative
channel offerings.
Chung and Paynter (2002) evaluate seven New Zealand banks regarding their IB websites and
services offered. They use a tailored Hersey’s web site evaluation model. They also conduct a
survey to obtain customers’ perspectives regarding IB. They find that New Zealand banks
perform extremely well in providing up-to date information. Further improvements on security,
download time, response time and the ability to provide services free from technical problems
should be considered in order to satisfy customers’ requirements.
Guru et al. (2003) evaluate the websites of banks in 12 Islamic countries. They find that the
majority of Islamic countries are still in the early stages of developing IB. Only some Islamic
banks in the Middle East have well-developed IB websites. Vijayan and Shanmugam (2003)
study the service quality of IB in Malaysia and find that two of the top five Malaysian banks have
a four star rating out of a maximum five star rating. The remaining three top banks have a three
star rating based on a 40-item evaluation instrument. Awamleh et.al. (2003) survey Jordanian
banks and find limited evidence of web usage at the intermediate level while the basic level use
is dominant. They also find the banks in Jordan are not fully utilizing concepts and applications
of web banking.
Wu et al. (2004) evaluate the web site usability of IB in Taiwan. Their study indicates that there
is a gap between the user expectation and actual usability of Web sites. Moreover, the results
show that old banks are more experienced than new banks and private banks are more
competitive than government-owned banks to survive in a competing market. Al-Sabbagh and
Molla (2004) search the factors that affect Omani consumers' adoption and use of IB. The
findings of their study indicate that IB in Oman is in its early stages of development. In addition,
Omani customers appear to make their IB adoption decision based on its compatibility,
usefulness and ease of use. Singh and Malhotra (2004) present the current state of IB in India
and also identify key differences between internet banks and non-internet banks with special
reference to commercial banks operating in India. The study is based on the survey of websites
of the banks. Based on the results, IB is not a significant determinant in explaining the
profitability for all banks. There is also no statistical significant difference between the internet
and non-internet banks with respect to accounting efficiency and credit quality. Eriksson et al.
(2004) studied technology acceptance of IB in Estonia. The findings of this study point to the
perceived usefulness of IB.
Diniz et al. (2005) propose and test a model of three dimensions to evaluate virtual business
environments from the user's point of view: functionality, security and usability. They select three
banks in Brazil for IB services testing on the model’s dimensions. Ainin et al. (2005) provide an
overview IB adoption in Malaysia. They evaluate the IB websites and services offered by local
banks. They adopt the model used by Chung and Paynter (2002). In this study, they identify IB
services and describe characteristics of IB adopters. Awamleh and Fernandes (2005) adopt the
Diniz (1998) model to analyze the content of bank websites in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The results reveal that IB in the UAE is still in its infancy. In their study it is also concerned with
factors that impact the satisfaction of IB users. They find that security of transactions and
conveniences contribute significantly to satisfaction of IB customers. Achour and Bensedrine
(2005) present the current situation of internet based financial services and the online brokerage
network in Tunisia. They adopt the tailored Hersey’s general e-commerce web site evaluation
model. They use this tailored model as a starting basis, and add some items such as
information, order and security components. The research shows that internet based services in
the financial sector are still in the early stages. Jaruwachirathanakul and Fink (2005) identify the
factors that encourage consumers to adopt IB in Thailand, and developed strategies for banks in
order to increase the rate of usage. They find that features of the web site and the perceived
usefulness are the most significant factors in encouraging IB adoption, whereas the external
environment is the most significant factor preventing IB adoption in Thailand.
Ayadi (2006) investigates the technological and organizational factors which have an influence
on the implement of IB in Tunisia. This study highlights that disintegrated information systems,
organizational rigidity and disregarding user’s implementation are the factors which degrade the
diffusion of IB. Chiemeke et al. (2006) investigate the level of adoption of IB in Nigeria. Their
study adopts the Diniz (1998) model and proposes an additional factor on security measures, to
evaluate twelve large on-line banks in Nigeria. The results reveal that IB in Nigeria is being
offered at the basic level of interactivity, with most of the banks having mainly information sites
and providing little internet transactional services. Although the level of adoption of IB remains
insignificant, IB will continue to play a significant role in the development and delivery of banking
products and services in Nigeria. Cheng et al. (2006) investigate the perception of IB in Hong
Kong. They provide several keys into determinants of IB usage. They find perceived usefulness
is a major factor determinant of customer’s intentions for IB usage.
Ndubisi and Sinti (2006) examine the determinant structure of customer attitude on adoption of
IB in Malaysia. They show the “attitudinal factors” play a significant role in IB adoption. In
addition, IB adoption can predict by behavioral tendency and webpage features. According to
this study, easy-to-use technologies and trial ability should be put in place in order to increase
adoption. Moreover, risk has no significant influence of adoptions. Sayar and Wolfe (2007)
compare the IB services in the UK and Turkey. They reveal that Turkish banks offer a wider
range of web services compared to British banks, despite the fact that the UK has a more
favorable environment for IB in terms of its banking sector and technological infrastructure.
There is a conceptual difference regarding the security issues between British and Turkish
banks. Turkish banks use technology to avoid fraud, whereas the British banks prefer more
conventional methods.
INTERNET BANKING IN TURKEY: AN OVERVIEW
The concept of global competition first manifested itself in Turkey in the late 1980s in the form of
private banking services and ATM (Automatic Teller Machines). Telephone banking was
introduced into Turkey in 1995 and IB began to be used in the early 2000s due to increased
internet subscription and the habit of shopping via the internet.
Data concerning IB and its frequency of use in Turkey can be accessed through reports
prepared by The Bank Association of Turkey (BAT). According to the data obtained from the
June 2009 report, the total number of retail customers who were registered in the system and
“logged in” at least once is 12.540,061. On the other hand, the total number of retail customers
who have entered the system during the past year is 6.676.472. During the January-June 2009
period, 5,001.219 retail customers have made at least one IB transaction. Likewise, the number
of commercial customers who were registered in the system to use IB and “logged in” at least
once as of March 2009 is 1.508.642. Of these customers, 591.336 made at least one transaction
in the January-June 2009 period. Apart from these, the number of commercial customers who
have “logged in” within the past year is 719.878.
Table 1: IB Use in Turkey
Retail Commercial Total
Period
Total
number of
registered
customers
that logged
in at least
once
Total
number of
registered
customers
that
logged in
at least
once in 1-
year
period
Number of
active
customers
Total
number of
registered
customers
that
logged in
at least
once
Total
number of
registered
customers
that
logged in
at least
once in 1-
year
period
Number of
active
customers
Total
number of
registered
customers
that logged
in at least
once
Total
number of
registered
customers
that
logged in
at least
once in 1-
year
period
Number of
active
customers
June 2008 10,494,772 5,436,926 4,262,930 1,274,368 654,069 534,007 11,769,140 6,090,995 4,796,937
September 2008 10,951,231 5,742,251 4,443,703 1,323,155 668,840 539,587 12,274,386 6,411,091 4,983,290
December
2008 11,222,126 5,946,652 4,613,670 1,358,545 687,737 555,459 12,580,671 6,634,389 5,169,129
March 2009 11,792,975 6,343,912 4,838,001 1,458,623 709,764 580,766 13,251,598 7,053,676 5,418,767
June 2009 12,540,061 6,676,472 5,001,219 1,508,642 719,878 591,336 14,048,703 7,396,350 5,592,555
Source: Report of the BAT Internet Banking Statistics, June 2009.
As can be seen from Table 1, a constant increase is observed especially in the number of active
customers in periods of 3 months. The average rate of increase in the total number of active
customers as of periods is 3,8 %, an average of 4 % for retail customers, and the rate of
increase in the number of commercial customers is 2,5 %.
Although IB is not as common in Turkey as in Europe, it is in a process of constant development.
While three-fourths of the population in European countries makes their banking transactions
through the internet, the figure is quite low in Turkey. The correlation between the internet usage
and age and education manifests itself in the field of internet banking, too. Studies conducted in
this regard put the age of IB use in Turkey at about 28. It is expected that thanks to the rapid
rate of increase in young population and education level, IB use in Turkey will catch up with
European countries in the coming years and perhaps overtake them.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD
This study was conducted as two main parts. In the first part of the study, we evaluate the
websites and services offered by Turkish banks. In the second part of the study, a survey was
conducted to obtain customer perspectives of IB. The items in the questionnaire were developed
based on the studies of Sathye (1999), Polatoglu and Ekin (2001), Al-Sabbagh and Molla
(2004), Eriksson et al. (2005), Ainin et al. (2005), Ndubisi and Sinti (2006), Cheng et al. (2006).
The data for this study consists of annual observations of IB websites for the period January and
November of 2009 and covers 22 banks that operate in Turkey. The sample consists of 3 public
sector banks, 10 private sector banks and 9 foreign banks (See Appendix 1). All pages and
functions contained in these banks websites were examined and evaluated during this period.
The study was developed based on the information we can get from the web sites. We also
made direct contact with the banks. During the survey research, 630 survey forms were
dispatched to different provinces of Turkey by post. The sample group consists of banking
customers from different professional groups. There was a total of 527 respondents.
FINDINGS
Evaluation of Bank Websites
A brief overview of the related literature shows that IB websites can be evaluated from many
different approaches such as usability, security, functionality, interactivity and accessibility. In
this study we evaluate 22 Turkish banks regarding their IB websites and services offered.
Components that appear in our evaluation model are financial transaction, non financial
transaction, speed, security, uninterrupted serviceability and visual design. The evaluation
instrument consists of 27 elements (See Table 2-3). The evaluator is required to record the
absence or presence of each element. The presence and absence of each element was
checked against information published on the bank websites, specifically on the site maps that
list what is available.
Transactions in banks related to internet use have been investigated under two headings,
namely financial and non-financial transactions. Financial transactions are divided into five
subtitles: money transfers, payments, investment transactions, credit card transactions and
account management. The obtained data are shown in Table 2. It is observed from Table 2 that
internet banking is extensively used in a majority of the banks. Money transfers involve EFT,
money orders and foreign currency transfers. It has been determined that EFT and money
orders are made in all the banks that use IB. Foreign currrency transfers, on the other hand, are
performed all the other banks except for four banks. The payments subtitle involves invoice, tax,
insurance premiums, loan and automatic payment orders. Except for six banks, bill payments
can be made in all the other banks. Tax payments, insurance premiums, loan and automatic
payment orders can be made in all the banks except for seven banks.
The subtitle of investment transactions involves investment funds, foreign currency transactions,
time deposit accounts, share certificates, repurchase agreements (repo), bonds and bills, gold
and TURKDEX (Turkish Derivatives Exchange) transactions. Investment funds, share
certificates, repo, bonds and bills are made by all the other banks except for six banks. Foreign
currency transactions, on the other hand, are made by all the banks except for four. Time
deposit transactions are made by all the banks with the exception of five banks. The number of
banks that make TURKDEX transactions is a mere five in comparison to the other transactions.
Under the subtitle of credit card transactions there are cash advance and payment to own and
others’ credit card. Cash advance can be given by the other banks except for 11 banks, whereas
payment to own and others’ credit card can be made by the other banks except for seven banks.
Account management forms the last part of the financial transactions. When transactions of
account information, opening and balancing of accounts, cheque and promissory notes are
examined, it is observed that preparation of account information is performed by all the others
except for four banks. Account opening and balancing transactions are made by all except for
seven banks and cheque and promissory note transactions are made by all the banks except for
five.
The banks included in the scope of the study have been listed according to the level by which
they make financial transactions. If the transaction was made by the bank, the bank was scored
1, and if not, it was scored 0. The score for each bank was calculated in percentage terms by
dividing the total number of elements present by the maximum score of 27. The percentage
score in the last row of Table 2 provide an indication of the performance differences. Table 2
shows that Finansbank scores the highest in the financial transactions. The one that received
the lowest score among them is the Turkland Bank.

Table 2
FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS
1-Money Transfers 2-Payments 3-Investment Transactions 4-Cerdit Card Transactions 5- Account Management
Banks-Transactions
EFT
Money orders
Foreign
currency
Invoice
Tax
Insurance
premium
Loan
Others
Automatic
payment order
Investment
funds
Foreign
currency
Time deposit
accounts
Share certificate
REPO
Bonds and bills
Gold
TURKDEX
Cash advance
Payment to own
credit card
Payment to
others' credit
card
Account
information
Open and
balance
accounts
Cheque and
promissory
notes
monitoring
Total %
Finans Bank 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 100
Denizbank 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 95,65
T. C. Ziraat Bankası 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 95,65
Türkiye Garanti Bankası 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 95,65
Türkiye İş Bankası 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 95,65
Akbank 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 91,3
Fortis Bank 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 91,3
Tekstil Bankası 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 91,3
Türk Ekonomi Bankası 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 91,3
Türkiye Halk Bankası 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 91,3
Türkiye Vakıflar Bankası 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 91,3
Yapı ve Kredi Bankası 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 91,3
HSBC Bank 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 86,96
ING Bank 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 86,96
Şekerbank 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 86,96
Alternatif Bank 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 82,61
Anadolubank 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 82,61
Eurobank Tekfen 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 82,61
Millennium Bank 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 82,61
Turkish Bank 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 39,13
ABN AMRO Bank N.V. 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 21,74
Turkland Bank 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


Non-financial transactions are divided into four subtitles: Credit card application, loan
application, regular payment orders and confirmed demands for public offers, changes
and cancellations. It can be seen in Table 3 that 14 banks can make all non-financial
transactions.
Table 3: Non-Financial Transactions
Non-Financial Transactions
Banks-Transactions
Credit card
application
Loan
application
Regular
payment
orders
Confirmed
demands for
public offers,
changes and
cancellations
Total %
Akbank 1 1 1 1 100
Anadolubank 1 1 1 1 100
Denizbank 1 1 1 1 100
Finans Bank 1 1 1 1 100
Fortis Bank 1 1 1 1 100
HSBC Bank 1 1 1 1 100
Oyak Bank 1 1 1 1 100
Şekerbank 1 1 1 1 100
Türk Ekonomi Bankası 1 1 1 1 100
Türkiye Garanti Bankası 1 1 1 1 100
Türkiye Halk Bankası 1 1 1 1 100
Türkiye İş Bankası 1 1 1 1 100
Türkiye Vakıflar Bankası 1 1 1 1 100
Yapı ve Kredi Bankası 1 1 1 1 100
Alternatif Bank 0 0 1 1 50
Eurobank Tekfen 0 0 1 1 50
Millennium Bank 0 0 1 1 50
Tekstil Bankası 0 0 1 1 50
Turkland Bank 0 0 1 1 50
T. C. Ziraat Bankası 0 0 1 1 50
ABN AMRO Bank N.V. 0 0 0 1 25
Turkish Bank 0 0 0 1 25
The website evaluation results denote that most of the Turkish banks offering IB facilities
had high overall scores, indicating that their websites were of high quality at all functional
and interactivity levels. Most of the banks scored full marks on the information
components.
After an evaluation of financial and non-financial transactions, issues concerning
websites of banks such as speed, security, availability of uninterrupted service, whether
commissions are demanded for transactions or not, web page design, languages in
which services are offered, customer services and satisfaction of web page content were
JIBC - 10 -
investigated.
When the websites of banks were evaluated in terms of speed, it was observed that
service provider was especially effective in the opening of websites of banks. It was also
observed that websites of all banks that offered IB services could be accessed in the
same connection environment. However, it was found that difficulties were experienced
especially in the opening of the websites of public banks in certain periods (for example
on the pay day and the next day) and that they could not cope with the intensive use.
When the banks were examined in terms of security, it was determined that websites of
all the banks were protected by a security system. Security software such as secure
socket layer-ssl, one time password, datasign secured, globalsign is being used.
Websites of all the banks offer services on a 24-hour basis and different time procedures
are applied for transactions such as EFT. While 15.00 is the hour when the last EFT
transaction is performed for some banks, for others this is as late as 16.45. After these
hours, orders can be given for only forward EFT transactions. Also, no other transactions
can be performed in the banks at the weekends except for some transactions such as
bill payments.
When the web site designs were examined, it was observed that percentage results in
the financial and non-financial transactions sections were effective in evaluations of web
site designs, and that visual designs of websites of banks where intensive banking
transactions were made were also successful.
The language used in the websites of all banks is Turkish. English is used as a second
language in all of them. The banks charge commissions on the basis of the type of IB
transactions. However, special prices are determined for those individuals and
institutions with which prior agreements were made. They can make many transactions
free of charge for which ordinary users have to pay a charge. All of the banks offer
customer services in their websites for the purpose of giving assistance and providing
information.
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